SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☐ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12 OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13(a) OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
Commission file number: 001-32135
Seabridge Gold Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
Classification Code Number)
106 Front Street East, Suite 400
Toronto, Ontario Canada M5A 1E1
(Address and telephone number of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Corporation Service Company
1180 Sixth Avenue
New York, New York 10036
(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service in the United States)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of Each Class:||Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered:|
|Common Shares, no par value||NYSE|
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
For annual reports, indicate by check mark the information filed with this Form:
|þ Annual Information Form||þ Audited Annual Financial Statements|
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 61,232,572 common shares (as of December 31, 2018).
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant by filing the information contained in this Form is also thereby furnishing the information to the Commission pursuant to Rule 12g3-2(b) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). If “Yes” is marked, indicate the filing number assigned to the Registrant in connection with such Rule. ☐ Yes 82- _________ þ No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. þ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
The annual report on Form 40-F shall be incorporated by reference into or as an exhibit to, as applicable, the Registrant’s Registration Statements under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended: Form F-10 (File No. 333-229373) and Form S-8 (File No. 333-211331).
Seabridge Gold Inc. (the “Registrant” or “we” or “us”) is a Canadian issuer eligible to file its annual report pursuant to Section 13 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), on Form 40-F (“Form 40-F”) pursuant to the multi-jurisdictional disclosure system of the Exchange Act. We are a “foreign private issuer” as defined in Rule 3b-4 under the Exchange Act. Accordingly, our equity securities are exempt from Sections 14(a), 14(b), 14(c), 14(f) and 16 of the Exchange Act pursuant to Rule 3a12-3.
The following documents have been filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein:
A. Annual Information Form
For our Annual Information Form (the “AIF”) for the year ended December 31, 2018, see Exhibit 99.1 of this Annual Report on Form 40-F.
B. Audited Annual Financial Statements
For our audited annual financial statements (“Audited Financial Statements”), for the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, including the Independent Auditors’ Report of Registered Public Accounting Firm, see Exhibit 99.2 of this Form 40-F. The Audited Financial Statements are stated in Canadian Dollars (CDN$) and are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
C. Management’s Discussion and Analysis
For our management’s discussion and analysis (the “MD&A”) for the year ended December 31, 2018, see Exhibit 99.3 of this Form 40-F.
This Form 40-F and the exhibits attached hereto contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, and forward-looking information within the meaning of Canadian securities laws concerning our projects, business approach and plans, including estimated production, capital, operating and cash flow estimates and other matters at our projects. Any statements that express or involve discussions with respect to predictions, expectations, beliefs, plans, projections, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance (often, but not always, using words or phrases such as “expects”, “anticipates”, “plans”, “projects”, “estimates”, “assumes”, “intends”, “strategy”, “goals”, “objectives” or variations thereof or stating that certain actions, events or results “may”, “could”, “would”, “might” or “will” be taken, occur or be achieved, or the negative of any of these terms and similar expressions) are not statements of historical fact and may be forward-looking statements and forward-looking information (collectively referred to in the following information simply as “forward-looking statements”). In addition, statements concerning mineral reserve and mineral resource estimates constitute forward-looking statements to the extent that they involve estimates of the mineralization expected to be encountered if a mineral property is developed and the economics of developing a property and producing minerals.
Forward-looking statements are necessarily based on estimates and assumptions made by us in light of our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments. In making the forward-looking statements in this Form 40-F and the exhibits attached hereto, we have applied several material assumptions including, but not limited to, the assumption that: (i) market fundamentals will result in sustained demand and prices for gold and copper, and to a much lesser degree, silver and molybdenum; (ii) the potential for production at our mineral projects will continue operationally, legally and economically; (iii) any additional financing needed will be available on reasonable terms; and (iv) estimated resources at our projects have merit and there is continuity of mineralization as reflected in such estimates.
Forward-looking statements are subject to a variety of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual events or results to differ from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation:
|●||our history of net losses and negative cash flows from operations and expectation of future losses and negative cash flows from operations;|
|●||risks related to our ability to continue our exploration activities and future advancement activities, and to continue to maintain corporate office support of these activities, which are dependent on our ability to enter into joint ventures, to sell property interests or to obtain suitable financing;|
|●||uncertainty of whether the reserves estimated on our mineral properties will be brought into production;|
|●||uncertainty relating to the assumptions underlying our resource and reserve estimates;|
|●||uncertainty of estimates of capital costs, operating costs, production and economic returns;|
|●||risks related to commercially producing precious metals from our mineral properties;|
|●||risks related to fluctuations in the market price of gold, copper and other metals;|
|●||risks related to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates;|
|●||mining, exploration and development risks that could result in damage to mineral properties, plant and equipment, personal injury, environmental damage and delays in mining, which may be uninsurable or not insurable in adequate amounts;|
|●||risks related to obtaining all necessary permits and governmental approvals, or extensions/renewals thereof, for exploration and development activities, including in respect of environmental regulation;|
|●||uncertainty related to title to our mineral properties and rights of access over or through lands subject to third party rights, interests and mineral tenures;|
|●||risks related to unsettled First Nations rights and title and settled Treaty Nations’ rights and uncertainties relating to the implementation of the concepts in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Canadian jurisdictions;|
|●||risks related to increases in demand for exploration, development and construction services equipment, and related cost increases;|
|●||increased competition in the mining industry;|
|●||our need to attract and retain qualified management and personnel;|
|●||risks related to conflicts of interest due to some of our directors’ and officers’ involvement with other natural resource companies;|
|●||our classification as a “passive foreign investment company” under the United States tax code;|
|●||risks surrounding an audit with the use of information technology systems and cybersecurity;|
|●||uncertainty surrounding an audit by the Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) of Canadian exploration expenses incurred by the Issuer during the 2014, 2015 and 2016 financial years which the Issuer has renounced to subscribers of flow-through share offerings and the CRA’s proposal to reduce such renunciations to such subscribers; and|
|●||the reassessment by the CRA of the Issuer’s refund claim for the 2010 and 2011 financial years in respect of the British Columbia Mining Exploration Tax Credit.|
This list is not exhaustive of the factors that may affect any of our forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are statements about the future and are inherently uncertain, and actual achievements or other future events or conditions may differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements due to a variety of risks, uncertainties and other factors, including, without limitation, those referred to in our AIF attached hereto as Exhibit 99.1 under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in the AIF, and in the documents incorporated by reference in this Form 40-F and the AIF. In addition, although we have attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual achievements, events or conditions to differ materially from those identified in the forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause achievements, events or conditions not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. It is also noted that while we engage in exploration and development of our properties, we will not undertake production activities by ourselves.
These forward-looking statements are based on the beliefs, expectations and opinions of management on the date the statements are made and we do not assume any obligation to update forward-looking statements, except as required by applicable securities laws, if circumstances or management’s beliefs, expectations or opinions should change. For the reasons set forth above, persons should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.
Unless otherwise indicated, all dollar amounts in this Form 40-F are in Canadian dollars.
NOTE TO UNITED STATES READERS-
DIFFERENCES IN UNITED STATES AND CANADIAN REPORTING PRACTICES
We are permitted under the multi-jurisdictional disclosure system adopted by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), to prepare this Form 40-F in accordance with Canadian disclosure requirements, which differ from those of the SEC. We have prepared our financial statements, which are filed as Exhibit 99.2 to this Form 40-F, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, and they are not comparable with financial statements of U.S. and other companies prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
RESOURCE AND RESERVE ESTIMATES
We prepared the AIF for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein in accordance with the requirements of Canadian securities laws, which differ from the requirements of U.S. securities laws. Unless otherwise indicated, all Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource estimates contained in or incorporated by reference in this Form 40-F have been prepared in accordance with Canadian National Instrument 43-101 – Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“NI 43-101”) and the Canadian Institute of Mining Metallurgy and Petroleum (the “CIM”) Classification System “Standards on Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves”, adopted by the CIM Council, as amended. NI 43-101 is a rule developed by the Canadian Securities Administrators that establishes standards for all public disclosure an issuer makes of scientific and technical information concerning mineral projects. These standards differ significantly from the requirements of the SEC, including Industry Guide 7 issued by the SEC. Mineral Resource information contained herein and incorporated by reference herein may not be comparable to similar information disclosed by U.S. companies.
Without limiting the foregoing, this Form 40-F, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, uses the terms “measured”, “indicated” and “inferred” resources. U.S. investors are cautioned that, while such terms are recognized and required by Canadian securities laws, the SEC does not recognize them. Under U.S. standards, mineralization may not be classified as a “reserve” unless the determination has been made that the mineralization could be economically and legally produced or extracted at the time the reserve determination is made. U.S. investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of measured or indicated resources will ever be converted into reserves.
U.S. investors should also understand that “inferred resources” have a great amount of uncertainty as to their existence and great uncertainty as to their economic and legal feasibility. It cannot be assumed that all or any part of the “inferred resources” exist, are economically or legally mineable or will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Therefore, U.S. investors are also cautioned not to assume that all or any part of the inferred resources exist, or that they can be mined legally or economically. Disclosure of “contained ounces” in a mineral resource is permitted disclosure under Canadian regulations; however, the SEC normally only permits issuers to report “resources” as in place tonnage and grade without reference to unit measures. Accordingly, information concerning descriptions of mineralization and resources contained in the AIF, or in the documents incorporated by reference to this Form 40-F and the AIF, may not be comparable to information made public by U.S. companies subject to the reporting and disclosure requirements of the SEC.
DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
At the end of the period covered by this annual report on Form 40-F, an evaluation was carried out under the supervision of, and with the participation of our management, including the Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and the Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) and Rule 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act). Based on that evaluation, the CEO and the CFO have concluded that as of the end of the period covered by this annual report, our disclosure controls and procedures were adequately designed and effective in ensuring that: (i) information required to be disclosed by us in reports that we file or submit to the SEC under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in applicable SEC rules and forms and (ii) material information required to be disclosed in our reports filed under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the CEO and the CFO, as appropriate, to allow for accurate and timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
For management’s report on internal control over financial reporting, see “Internal Controls over Financial Reporting” in our MD&A attached as Exhibit 99.3 to this annual report on Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein.
Attestation Report of the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, which immediately precedes the audited consolidated financial statements included as part of Exhibit 99.2 to this annual report on Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein.
Changes in Internal Controls over Financial Reporting
During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, no changes occurred in our internal control over financial reporting that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
See Exhibits 31.1, 31.2, 32.1 and 32.2 to this Form 40-F.
We are subject to a variety of corporate governance guidelines and requirements of the Toronto Stock Exchange, the NYSE (the “NYSE”), the Canadian Securities Administrators and the SEC. We believe that we meet or exceed the applicable corporate governance requirements. According to the NYSE Rules, a listed company must adopt and disclose a set of corporate governance guidelines with respect to specified topics. Such guidelines are required to be posted on the registrant’s website. Although we are listed on the NYSE, we are not required to comply with all of that exchange’s corporate governance rules which are applicable to U.S. corporations. The significant ways in which the NYSE governance rules differ for us, as a foreign company, are a reduced quorum requirement for shareholder meetings, shareholder approval for issuance of common shares that could result in a 20% increase in the number of outstanding common shares and shareholder approval of certain compensation plans. The guidelines are available for viewing on our website at http://seabridgegold.net/pdf/ManCorpPolPrac.pdf and are available without charge in print to any shareholder who requests them. Requests for copies of the guidelines should be made to the Secretary of our company at 106 Front Street East, Suite 400, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5A 1E1, Telephone (416) 367-9292.
We review our governance practices and monitor developments in Canada and the United States on an on-going basis to ensure we remain in compliance with applicable rules and standards. The Board is committed to sound corporate governance practices which are both in the interest of our shareholders and contribute to effective and efficient decision making.
The Board has a separately designated standing Audit Committee established in accordance with Section 3(a)(58)(A) of the Exchange Act. The members of our Audit Committee are identified under the heading “Audit Committee Information” in the AIF which is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this annual report on Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein. In the opinion of the Board, all members of the Audit Committee are financially literate and independent, as such terms are defined by the NYSE’s corporate governance listing standards applicable to us and as determined by Rule 10A-3 under the Exchange Act.
Audit Committee Financial Expert
The Board has determined that Mr. Richard Kraus, Chairman of the Audit Committee, has the necessary qualifications to be designated as an “audit committee financial expert” within the meaning of applicable SEC Rules and is an “independent director”, as defined pursuant to Item 407(d)(5) of SEC Regulation S-K and Section 303A.02 of the New York Stock Exchange Listed Company Manual. Mr. Kraus is a Certified Public Accountant and an accomplished business leader with a broad range of experience as an investor, board director, senior executive and business consultant across multiple industries with an emphasis on mining and natural resources. From 1981-1997 he served in various senior executive roles (including CEO, COO and CFO) of Echo Bay Mines, a major gold mining company that was acquired by Kinross Gold Corporation in 2003. Mr. Kraus is currently Executive Chairman of The RMH Group, Inc., a privately owned engineering consulting firm with more than 100 employees. He is a graduate of LaSalle University where he earned his degree in Business Administration. The SEC has indicated that the designation of an audit committee financial expert does not make that person an “expert” for any purpose, impose any duties, obligations, or liability on that person that are greater than those imposed on members of the audit committee and board of directors who do not carry this designation, or affect the duties, obligations, or liabilities of any other member of the audit committee or board of directors.
Audit Committee Charter
Our Audit Committee Charter is available on our website at http://www.seabridgegold.net/governance.php, and is provided in Schedule A to the AIF, which is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this annual report on Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein. The Charter also is available in print to any shareholder that provides us with a written request. Requests for copies should be made to the Secretary of our company at 106 Front Street East, Suite 400, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5A 1E1, Telephone (416) 367-9292.
PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES – INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
KPMG LLP acted as our independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. For a description of the total amount billed by KPMG LLP to us for services performed in the last two fiscal years by category of service (audit fees, audit-related fees, tax fees and all other fees), see Item 9 “Audit Committee Information - External Auditor Service Fees (by Category)” in the AIF, which is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein.
AUDIT COMMITTEE PRE-APPROVAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
For a description of our pre-approval policies and procedures related to the provision of non-audit services, see Item 9 “Audit Committee Information- Pre-Approval of Audit and Non-Audit Services Provided by Independent Auditors” in the AIF, which is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
We do not have any off-balance sheet financing arrangements or relationships with unconsolidated special purpose entities.
CODE OF BUSINESS ETHICS
We have adopted a Code of Business Ethics (the “Code”) covering our executive officers and directors. The Code is available on our website at http://seabridgegold.net/pdf/ManCorpPolPrac.pdf and from our office at the address listed on the cover of this Form 40-F.
All amendments and all waivers of the Code to the officers covered by it will be posted on our website, furnished to the SEC as required, and provided to any shareholder who requests them. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, we did not grant any waiver, including an implicit waiver, from a provision of the Code to any executive officer or director.
The required disclosure is included under the heading “Contractual Obligations” in our MD&A attached as Exhibit 99.3 to this annual report on Form 40-F and incorporated by reference herein. Amounts shown for mining leases include estimates of option payments, mineral lease payments, work commitments and tax levies that are required to maintain our interest in the mineral projects.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
Pursuant to Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, issuers that are operators, or that have a subsidiary that is an operator, of a coal or other mine in the United States are required to disclose in their periodic reports filed with the SEC information regarding specified health and safety violations, orders and citations, related assessments and legal actions, and mining-related fatalities under the regulation of the Federal Mine safety and Health Administration under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, we were not an operator, of a coal or other mine in the United States.
NOTICES PURSUANT TO REGULATION BTR
We did not send any notices required by Rule 104 of Regulation BTR during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 concerning any equity security subject to a blackout period under Rule 101 of Regulation BTR.
Additional information relating to us, including the Audited Financial Statements, the MD&A and the AIF, can be found on SEDAR at www.sedar.com, on the SEC website at www.sec.gov, or on our website at www.seabridgegold.net. Shareholders may also contact the Secretary of our company by phone at (416) 367-9292 or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org to request copies of these documents and this annual report on Form 40-F.
CONTACTING THE BOARD
Shareholders, employees and other interested parties may communicate directly with the Board by:
Chairman and CEO
Seabridge Gold, Inc.
106 Front Street, East, 4th Floor
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5A 1E1
UNDERTAKING AND CONSENT TO SERVICE OF PROCESS
We undertake to make available, in person or by telephone, representatives to respond to inquiries made by the SEC staff, and to furnish promptly, when requested to do so by the SEC staff, information relating to: the securities registered pursuant to Form 40-F; the securities in relation to which the obligation to file an annual report on Form 40-F arises; or transactions in said securities.
|B.||Consent to Service of Process|
We have previously filed with the SEC a written consent to service of process and power of attorney on Form F-X. Any change to the name or address of our agent for service shall be communicated promptly to the SEC by amendment to the Form F-X referencing our file number.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Exchange Act, the Registrant certifies that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form 40-F and has duly caused this annual report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereto duly authorized.
|Seabridge Gold Inc.|
|By:||/s/ Rudi P. Fronk|
|Rudi P. Fronk|
|Chairman and Chief Executive Officer|
Date: March 27, 2019
|23.1||Consent of KPMG LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm|
|23.2(a)||Consent of Tetra Tech Inc. and John Huang|
|23.2(b)||Consent of Tetra Tech Inc. and Sabry Abdel Hafez|
|23.2(c)||Consent of Tetra Tech Inc. and Hassan Ghaffari|
|23.2(d)||Consent of Tetra Tech Inc. and Kevin Jones|
|23.2(e)||Consent of Tetra Tech Inc. and Nigel Goldup|
|23.3||Consent of Moose Mountain Technical Services and J. H. Gray|
|23.4||Consent of W.N. Brazier Associates Inc. and Neil Brazier|
|23.5||Consent of ERM Consultants Canada Ltd. and Rolf Schmitt|
|23.6||Consent of Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd. and Graham Parkinson|
|23.7||Consent of Resource Modeling Inc. and Michael Lechner|
|23.8||Consent of McElhanney Consulting Services Ltd. and Robert W. Parolin|
|23.9||Consent of BGC Engineering Inc. and Derek Kinakin|
|23.10(a)||Consent of Golder Associates Ltd. and Ross D. Hammett|
|23.10(b)||Consent of Golder Associates Ltd. and Albert Victor Chance|
|23.11||Consent of Wood Canada Limited and Greg Gosson.|
|23.12||Consent of SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc. and Stephen Day|
|23.13||Consent of William Threlkeld|
|31.1||Certification of Chief Executive Officer required by Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a), pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002|
|31.2||Certification of Chief Financial Officer required by Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a), pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002|
|32.1||Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002|
|32.2||Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002|
|99.1||Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2018|
|99.2||Audited Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2018|
|99.3||Management’s Discussion and Analysis for the year ended December 31, 2018|
|101.INS||XBRL Instance Document|
|101.SCH||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document|
|101.CAL||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document|
|101.DEF||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document|
|101.LAB||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document|
|101.PRE||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document|